What is a KEAP Engine?


  • An engine – built very small (microscopic)
  • Fueled by heat – from Brownian Motion
  • Used to make electricity or perform work
  • Can be implemented in a variety of forms by arranging many KEAP Engines into endless designs


They said “It Can’t Be Done!”

Q: What about the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?
“It is impossible to convert any amount of heat of a thermal bath completely into work in a cyclic process.”

A: This device is actually a heat engine powered by external thermal kinetic energy (Brownian Motion).

  • External energy eliminates the “thermal bath” limitation
  • Brownian motors have been demonstrated in several forms
  • Numerous theoretical and experimental results exist
  • Even some biological processes are believed to be powered by Brownian Motion (e.g. motor protein winding of ATP molecules)


The energy in a kinetic atom!

Temperature is a result of matter’s kinetic energy.

  • Energy of an individual gas or liquid molecule is:
    E = 3/2 kBT
    kB = 1.38×10-23 J/K
    at room temperature (T = 296 K), energy is 6.13×10-21 joules
  • As a result of this energy, at room temperature the average air molecule is moving at around 1000 mph.


Energy in a LOT of atoms

  • Molecules per mm3 (cubic millimeter)of air = 2.42×1016 of water = 3.35×1019
  • Volume of an AA battery 7696 mm3
  • Energy in that volume: if air = 1.14 joules if water = 1578 joules
  • A cube of air with sides of four feet contains kinetic energy measuring just over 805,355,861 joules (300 horsepower)


“Truth in Advertising”

  • Energies stated are the total kinetic energy of the atoms
  • The atoms lose energy (get cooler) as the engine works
  • For each six centigrade (6 °C) the atoms are cooled, the engine gets 2% of the atoms’ total energy as power
  • Colder atoms transfer energy less efficiently
  • Most of the total energy will not be available to our engine
  • Expectations of 4% – 10% of the total energy is realistic


And now the great news

  • Even though there is limited power inside our engine, used power will be replaced by the heat of the environment
  • The air in our environment is continuously being heated by the power of the sun
  • The air, being warmer than our cooled atoms inside of the working engine, will transfer and re-heat those atoms
  • The rate of heat transfer is the final limit on the rate of power that can be generated


Ambient Heat Transfers Into System

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